Below are publications and tools made available by fema for selfstudy and instruction in how to reduce the seismic vulnerability of new and existing buildings and their contents. Basic principles of the seismic method in this chapter we introduce the basic notion of seismic waves. Average speed of the seismic wave through the mantle and crust. Every point on the wave front is a source of a new wave that travels out of it in the form of spherical shells. The fundamentals of seismic wave propagation are developed using a physical approach and then applied to show how refraction, reflection, and teleseismic techniques are used to study the. A free powerpoint ppt presentation displayed as a flash slide show on id.
Some concepts in earthquake behaviour of buildings c. Important terms in seismology meteorological centre, shimla. The waves are then detected and recorded by seismograms, which measure. Civil engineering introduction to engineering seismology nptel. Lesson 11 basics of seismic interpretation iris earthquake science.
A wave can be defined as a periodic disturbance that transmits energy through a medium, without the permanent displacement of the medium. In other words, the material was not and is not intended as a standard introductory text on theoretical seismology. Principles of the seismology and seismic engineering. Seismograph, instrument that makes a record of seismic waves caused by an earthquake, explosion, or other earth shaking phenomenon. For free space, the onedimensional wave equation is derived. In the earth, seismic waves can propagate as longitudinal p or as shear s waves. Unlike conventional seismographs, which are designed for maximum.
Introduction to petroleum geology and geophysics geophysical methods in hydrocarbon exploration. Seismograph basic principles of the modern seismograph. Seismology is a science dealing with all aspects of earthquakes multidisciplinary science, links physics with other geosciences geology, geography large span of amplitudes 109 101 m very large span of wave periods 103 104 s very young science second half of the 19th century elements of seismology. Effect of flexural stiffness of structural elements 32. When an earthquake or explosion occurs, part of the energy released is as elastic waves that are transmitted through the earth. The development of a proper model of the seismic source took more than 50 years since the first efforts by nakano 1923 and colleagues in japan. Seismic surveys of earths interior shows that the outer core is the liquid having 80% iron, some nickel and a number of different lighter elements. View and download powerpoint presentations on 3d multiples seismic ppt. Introduction to play elements the lecture material contained in this lesson leads students through the basic methods in oil discovery, and the five 5 major components you need to cook, contain, and preserve a resource play. This book is meant to introduce the fundamentals of earthquake protection of nonstructural elements in buildings to first time readers, wishing to get a grip of the basics of the subject. General seismology or basic concepts of seismology goran ekstrom. The temperature of the outer core ranges from about 4,030 to 5,730 degrees celsius.
Microsoft powerpoint introduction to petroleum geology and geophysics. Elasticity and p and s waves basics concepts of seismology. For instructorled training courses, visit the national earthquake technical assistance program netap. The material is based on several textbooks, monographs and journal articles. History of seismology early science seismology before computers 18801960 seismology since computers 1960present earthquake mythology ancient beliefs india. Find powerpoint presentations and slides using the power of, find free presentations research about 3d multiples seismic ppt. The wave phenomena occurring at a boundary between two layers are discussed, such as snells. Seismic interpretation with deep learning by anders u. Records the movement of earth in relation to a stationary mass on a rotating drum or magnetic tape. Key elements of seismickey elements of seismic resistant designresistant design required lateral strength asce7. Ppt land and marine seismic acquisition from 2d to 3d. Consistency of the acquisition and processing of 4d seismic is a challenge.
Seismographs are instruments that record seismic waves. Seismic isolation is commonly referred to as base isolation because the most common location of the isolation system is at or near the base of the structure. Seismograph seismograph basic principles of the modern seismograph. An introduction to seismology, earthquakes, and earth. Theoretical seismology starts with elements of theory of elasticity. An introduction to seismology, earthquakes and earth structures is an introduction to seismology and its role in the earth sciences, and is written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Introduction to seismology seminar on submitted to. Elements of earthquake engineering and structural dynamics. Unit i elements of earthquake seismology and dynamics chapter 2 in krammer book and ppt folder 1 all lectures and folder 2 lectures 8 unit iii ground response analysis local site effects and design ground motion. The document applies to the overall structural system and its elements and components. It employs exaggerated shapes of buildings cartoons to emphasise deformation sustained.
The ibc seismic maps have been updated to match new maps in the 2015 nehrp provisions and asce 716. For david and samantha and to the memory of ruben liner, sr. The study of earthquake waves, seismology, dates back almost 2000 years to the chinese. Introduction to play elements incorporated research.
A brief history of seismology usgs earthquake hazards. Land and marine seismic acquisition from 2d to 3d 1 land and marine seismic acquisition from 2d to 3d from chapters 712 elements of 3d seismology by chris liner 2. Arial times new roman wingdings tahoma verdana b symbol orbit slit cliff shimmer axis microsoft equation 3. Powerpoint presentation powerpoint presentation the three major chemical radial divisions the shallowest layer of the earth. Design all other frame elements to be stronger than the fuses, i. Basic principles of the seismic method tu delft ocw.
But the scope of this book is not limited to structural analysis and design. Also required that energy is converted back and forward between two different types. Earthquake seismology is the best tool to study the interior of the earth. Ppt history of seismology powerpoint presentation free. Understand why we need numerical methods to understand our world learn about various numerical methods finite differences, pseudospectal methods, finite spectral elements and understand their. Chapter c11 seismic design criteria spectrum for a specific earthquake ground motion provides the maximum value of response for elastic singledegreeoffreedom oscillators as a function of period without the need to reflect the total response history for every period of interest. Seismic data provide structural and static information for a reservoir such as lateral extent of the reservoir, thickness, faults, porosity, among other reservoir properties.
Seismology the study of earthquake engineering requires an understanding of the various process by which earthquakes occur and their effects on ground motion. Seismology and the structure of the earth seismology and the structure of the earth topic week introduction networks seismicity 1 elasticity theory 2 the elastic wave equation 3 exercises powerpoint ppt presentation free to view. Seismological grand challenges in understanding earths. When an earthquake or explosion occurs, part of the energy released is as elastic waves. Elements of soil physics developments in soil science elements of structural dynamics a new perspective en 1998 eurocode 8 design of structures for earthquake resistance. Seismology science dealing with earthquakes seismic engineering the discipline the aim of which is to construct infrastructures and buildings resistant to earthquake and similar phenomena impacts and by this way to protect human lives and health and human property. Lesson 11 basics of seismic interpretation youtube. If a common pendulum is free to swing in one direction and if the ground moves rapidly in the direction of freedom of the pendulum while the pendulum is motionless, the pendulum will tend to remain in place through inertia. Seismographs are equipped with electromagnetic sensors that translate ground motions into electrical changes, which are processed and recorded by the instruments analog or digital circuits. The standard does not restrict the plane of isolation to the base of the structure but does require the foundation and other structural elements below. Timelapse seismic acquired at different times measures changes in reservoir state. Laying out geophones there are five interrelated elements involved in a seismic survey, each depending on the completion of previous operations. Seismic conceptual design of buildings basic principles.
Ppt introduction to seismology powerpoint presentation. Mehta gujarat state disaster management authority government of gujarat. Conceptual design, and the detailing of structural elements and nonstructural elements the conceptual design and the detailing of the structural elements walls, columns, slabs and. Pdf seismic design of building structures mansour al. Those maps are based upon the 2014 usgs update of its national seismic hazard model. Structural dynamics and earthquake engineering books. Seismic moment 7 lets consider a rightlateral movement on a vertical fault oriented in the x 1 direction and the corresponding moment tensor is given by 0 12 0 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0, where 0 called scalar seismic moment which is the best measure of earthquake size and energy release. Introduction to earthquake protection of nonstructural. Networks of strongmotion seismographs are established and expanded. In reflection seismology, seismic records from many sets of shots and receivers are used to generate an ideal seismogram which has reflections that correspond to a vertically travelling wave as. If the ground moves back and forth oscillates and if the period of ground motion the time. Infinitesimal strain tensor has elements e that are linear functions of spatial derivatives of displacement components u. Seismic rays are used instead of the wave front to describe the wave propagation.91 1474 1354 844 944 978 383 89 1474 1238 1216 724 1604 91 1047 1280 217 64 1160 71 272 1099 560 1677 1444 1388 296 478 246 392 47 324 1111 869 1042 1317 308 1044 1105 546 876 1158 198 1052 630 557 410